Zhob (ژوب), formerly known as Fort Sandeman or Appozai, is the city and district capital of Zhob District in the Balochistan province of Pakistan. Zhob is located on the banks of the Zhob River 337 km from Quetta, the capital of Balochistan. The city was originally named Appozai after a nearby village. During the British colonial era it was named Fort Sandeman. It obtained its current name on 30 July 1976 when the then-Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto had the name changed.
Zhob is a small town and district capital of Zhob District in Balochistan province of Pakistan at an elevation of 4,678 ft (1,426 m). Zhob is located on the banks of the Zhob River. The city was originally named Apozai after a nearby village. During the colonial era, it was named Fort Sandeman. It obtained its current name on the 30th of July 1976, when the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, had the name changed. A Chinese pilgrim, Xuanzang, who visited the region in 629 AD mentioned Pashtuns living in Zhob.
Until the Zhob Valley expedition of 1884, the area was practically unknown to Europeans, and in 1889 the Zhob Valley and Gomal Pass were taken under the control of the British Government. In December 1889 the town of Zhob, then known as Apozai, was occupied by the British and named Fort Sandeman after Sir Robert Sandeman.
The district of Zhob was formed in 1890, with Fort Sandeman as the capital. The population was 3552, according to the 1901 census of India. The military garrison included a native cavalry and a native infantry regiment. It was also the headquarters of the Zhob Levy Corps. In 1894 a supply of water from the Saliaza valley was established, allowing irrigation and planting of fruits and trees and providing drinking water.
During the colonial era, the Political Agent resided in a building known as “the Castle” that lay to the north of the town and 150 feet (46 m) above the surface of the plain. The military lines, bazaar, dispensaries, and school lay below. During this time the railway system was built.
Zhob has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), its rainfall being high enough to avoid the arid climate category found at lower elevations. Unlike most of Balochistan, Zhob does on occasions receive rainfall from the monsoon, though this occurs very erratically.
Zhob is 365 kilometres (227 mi) from Quetta and 225 kilometres (140 mi) from Dera Ismail Khan. However, the road linking with Dera Ismail Khan is mostly a track passing through water streams and almost all of the road is metalloid. The Quetta to Zhob National highway has been completed recently on the expenditure of 7 billion rupees by NHA in five years in two shifts (Quetta-Killasaifulah and Killasaifulah-Zhob). Zhob has an important link with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa because it connects Balochistan with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and then with Punjab; originally it took 12 hours or more to reach Dera Ismail Khan, but now it is a distance of almost 4 hours. On this route, there is heavy traffic of cargo and goods carrying vehicles to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab. The route is very convenient for transportation between Punjab and Balochistan. This road is very important for carrying goods from the province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the seaport of Karachi. Zhob is linked by rail with the Pakistan Railways network. In 2006, the Pakistan Railways converted the narrow gauge railway track into a broad gauge. The Zhob line splits off the Chaman line north of Quetta at Bostan. A more direct route to the capital via Dera Ismail Khan and Darya Khan is also proposed. The new project will link Quetta with Peshawar via Bostan, Zhob, Dera Ismail Khan, Bannu and Kohat.
The Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan constructed an airport at Zhob with a 6,390 feet (1,950 m) runway that links Zhob by air with the major cities of Pakistan.
Paryan-o-Ghundi, or Periano Ghundai, meaning Hill of Fairies, was an archaeological mound located in the Zhob District in Balochistan, Pakistan. The site, located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of the town of Zhob, was excavated in 1924 by Sir Aurel Stein and showed a great resemblance to the Harappan culture. It was completely destroyed by the locals sometime after 1950.
Zhob River (Pashto: ژوب سيند; Urdu: دریائے ژوب) is located in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The total length of the Zhob River is 410 km, and it flows on a generally northeasterly course.